糖尿病的症状、诊断和监测

医生与病人会面

近3300万美国成年人有过这种经历 2型糖尿病 ——很多人不知道. 1型糖尿病 often remains undiagnosed until symptoms become so severe that hospitalization is required.

Both of these facts speak to a larger truth: Left untreated, diabetes can cause many 健康并发症. That’s why it’s crucial to know the warning signs and to see a healthcare professional regularly for routine wellness screenings.

症状

前驱糖尿病 没有明显的症状.

Those with Type 1 or 2型糖尿病 also may have no symptoms — or such mild symptoms that they go unnoticed for quite some time.

But since some people experience diabetes warning signs, it’s important to know the symptoms below:

前驱糖尿病 1型糖尿病 2型糖尿病
无明显症状 口渴加剧或极度口渴 口渴
  增加食欲 增加食欲
  增加疲劳 乏力
  小便增多或频繁 小便增多,尤其是在晚上
  不寻常的减肥 减肥
  视力模糊 视力模糊
  水果气味或气息 无法愈合的伤口
  在某些情况下,没有症状 在某些情况下,没有症状

如果你有这些症状, see your health care professional right away for a check-up and proper diagnosis.

谁应该做糖尿病前期和糖尿病的检查?

美国.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that you should be tested if you are:

  • 45岁以上
  • 超重, younger than 45 and have one or more additional risk factors, such as:
    • 高血压
    • 高胆固醇
    • 有糖尿病家族史
    • 是非洲裔美国人, 亚裔美国人, 拉丁裔和拉丁裔美国人, 美洲原住民或太平洋岛民后裔
    • Have a history of gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) or delivering a baby more than nine pounds

If your blood glucose levels are normal, you should be tested about every three years. 如果你有糖尿病前期, you should be checked for diabetes every one to two years after that diagnosis.

诊断前驱糖尿病和糖尿病的试验

Three 测试 can help health care professionals make a diagnosis of prediabetes and diabetes:

糖化血红蛋白(糖化血红蛋白)

糖化血红蛋白检测可以诊断前驱糖尿病和糖尿病. It measures your average blood glucose control for the past two to three months. Blood sugar is measured by the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) in your blood. This test is more convenient because no fasting is required.

糖化血红蛋白5.7% to 6.4% means that you have prediabetes, and you’re at high risk for developing diabetes. 糖化血红蛋白为6时诊断为糖尿病.5%或以上.

空腹血糖试验

A fasting plasma glucose test requires fasting (nothing to eat or drink except water) for eight hours before the test.

你要抽血做这个测试. 然后 the plasma (the fluid part of the blood) is combined with other substances to determine the amount of glucose in the plasma. Blood glucose is measure in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). 

This chart contains the FPG test’s blood glucose ranges for prediabetes and diabetes, 并描述了每种诊断的含义:

血糖范围 诊断 这意味着什么
100 ~ 125毫克/分升 糖尿病前期(也称为空腹血糖受损) Blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. This condition increases risk for developing 2型糖尿病, heart disease and stroke.
126毫克/分升或以上 糖尿病(2型糖尿病) 2型糖尿病 develops when your body doesn’t make enough insulin or develops “insulin resistance” and can't efficiently use the insulin it makes. It greatly increases your risk of heart disease and stroke.

口服糖耐量试验

This test measures how well the body handles a standard amount of glucose.

要做这个测试, your health care professional will draw blood before and two hours after you drink a large, 预先测定的含葡萄糖饮料. 然后, your doctor can compare the before-and-after glucose levels contained in your plasma to see how well your body processed the sugar. 这些水平以毫克/分升为单位.

The chart below contains the oral glucose tolerance test  ranges for prediabetes and diabetes and what each diagnosis means:

血糖范围 诊断 这意味着什么
140 ~ 199毫克/分升 糖尿病前期(也称为空腹血糖受损) Blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. This condition increases risk for developing 2型糖尿病, heart disease and stroke.
200毫克/分升或更高 糖尿病(2型糖尿病) 2型糖尿病 develops when your body doesn’t make enough insulin or develops “insulin resistance” and can’t efficiently use the insulin it makes. It greatly increases your risk of heart disease and stroke.

监测糖尿病的检测方法

如果你被诊断患有2型糖尿病, you can monitor your blood sugar level several ways to evaluate how well your treatment plan is working:

糖化血红蛋白

Your health care team will do an 糖化血红蛋白 test at least twice a year. 

家庭监控

Easy-to-use home monitors allow people to test their blood sugar on their own. 这些设备种类繁多.

If you’re managing diabetes with the help of a home monitor, talk to your doctor to learn what to do when your results are too high or low.

测量心脏健康的测试

People with diabetes are at increased risk for a range of 健康并发症, 包括心血管疾病.

了解更多关于 测试 health care professionals may use to check your heart health.


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患有2型糖尿病?

Get monthly science-based diabetes and heart-healthy tips in your inbox. Know 糖尿病 by Heart raises awareness that living with 2型糖尿病 increases risk for heart disease and stroke – and that people should talk with their doctor at their next appointment about ways to reduce risk.