Rate of high blood pressure disorders in pregnancy doubled in 12 years

By Michael Merschel, American Heart Association 巴黎人

Adene Sanchez/E+ via Getty Images
(Adene Sanchez/E+ via Getty Images)

The rate of pregnancy-related high blood pressure disorders doubled in the U.S. 2007年至2019年, 根据一项新的研究,现在每5个新生儿中就有1个患有这种疾病, a preterm delivery or a baby with low birth weight.

The study, published Wednesday in the Journal of the American Heart Association, 在女性生命的关键时期,填写了关于女性心脏健康的重要细节, 因为这些妊娠并发症与心脏病的长期风险有关, said the study's lead author Dr. Priya芙蕾妮.

“怀孕可以作为一个水晶球,让我们预测未来女性心血管健康可能会发生什么,弗蕾妮说, 他是芝加哥西北大学范伯格医学院的高级心血管研究员.

Researchers looked at rates of three problems, collectively known as adverse pregnancy outcomes, 这就解释了孕妇及其孩子所经历的许多健康并发症:出生体重过低, preterm deliveries and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

That third category includes preeclampsia and gestational hypertension, which are forms of high blood pressure during pregnancy.

Researchers used data from all 51.2007年至2019年国家卫生统计中心新生儿档案中的600万新生儿. After adjusting for the women's age, 研究人员发现,高血压相关疾病的发病率从38岁开始增长.4 per 1,000 live births in 2007 to 77.8 in 2019.

The rate of increase accelerated in more recent years, growing 9.1% a year on average from 2014 to 2019 compared to 4.1% a year from 2007 to 2014.

Increases were similar across all age, racial and ethnic groups. 这意味着黑人和白人母亲之间先前确立的差距并没有缩小, which Freaney called "unacceptable."

The study also charted rates of preterm birth and babies with low birth weight. The higher rates in 2019, though slight, reversed a downward trend seen in 2014.

最近低出生体重和早产的增加似乎都是由怀孕期间血压问题的增加引起的, 芙蕾妮说. 患有先兆子痫的妇女可能需要早期引产,这将导致早产. A baby born early is more likely to have a low birth weight.

The average age of women giving birth increased to 29.1 years in 2019, up from 27.4 in 2007. 弗蕾妮说,怀孕问题的相对增加实际上在年轻女性中更高. “所以这表明,增加母亲年龄并不是这些不利趋势的主要驱动因素,我们必须研究其他原因."

Dr. 帕瑞克豪尼莎, 加州大学旧金山分校的临床心脏病学家和医学副教授, called it "a fantastic paper on a really important topic."

帕瑞克豪, who was not involved in the study, said that although the risks highlighted by the research are well known, 关于发病率上升的新数据更清晰地描绘了广泛的公共卫生负担.

尽管研究人员表示,母亲平均年龄的增加并不显著, 帕瑞克豪表示 it still might explain some of the problem. 这也是可能的, 她说, that the higher increase in hypertensive disorders, as compared with low birth weight and preterm delivery, 这是否意味着由于女性和她们的医生更密切地监测,血压问题更早地被发现.

这些问题也可能反映出育龄妇女心脏健康状况普遍恶化. 因此,研究结果强调,怀孕或计划怀孕的女性需要考虑自己的心脏健康, 帕瑞克豪表示, 谁帮助写了 American Heart Association scientific statement last year about adverse pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular disease risk.

怀孕通常是女性专注于确保婴儿安全分娩的时期, 她说. “我认为考虑自己的健康也很重要”,通过适量的体育锻炼和选择健康的食物.

孕妇血压紊乱的基础科学还需要更多的研究, 帕瑞克豪表示. "We still don't know the exact underpinnings of preeclampsia," or the link between preeclampsia and later cardiovascular disease. "Connecting all those dots will be really important."

弗蕾妮说,研究结果还强调,有必要让女性了解怀孕期间高血压的长期影响. 她说,怀孕期间患有高血压的女性应该知道,“即使你的血压在怀孕后恢复正常, 它仍应被视为一个警告信号,是与医生讨论如何优化你的心脏健康和预防未来心血管疾病的重要话题."

帕里克说,怀孕和孕前“是让女性关注自身健康的绝佳机会, because it's important for the baby's health but also for the mom's health,帕里克说. "You're capturing the health of two individuals during that time period. And this study just points out that there's a huge public health need, and it's a growing public health need."

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美国心脏协会巴黎人报道心脏病、中风和相关健康问题. 并非所有美国心脏协会巴黎人报道中表达的观点都反映了美国心脏协会的官方立场. 语句, 结论, 发表在美国心脏协会科学期刊上或在美国心脏协会科学会议上发表的研究的准确性和可靠性仅代表研究作者的观点,并不一定反映美国心脏协会的官方指导, policies or positions.

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