COVID-19增强剂引起的心肌炎罕见, 但在十几岁的男孩中风险最高, young men


Jolygon/iStock via Getty Images
(Jolygon/iStock via Getty Images)

The risk of developing myocarditis – an inflammation of the heart muscle – following a booster dose of the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine is low, 根据以色列的最新研究.

当疫苗相关心肌炎确实发生时, 病例通常是轻微的, according to the study published Tuesday in the 美国心脏协会 journal 循环. 研究发现,青少年男孩和年轻男性的患病风险最高.

"It is important to understand the connections between this rare heart condition and COVID-19 vaccines so we can monitor the prevalence of myocarditis and pay extra attention to those who are most at risk,该研究的主要作者. Dror Mevorach在巴黎人发布会上说. He is a professor of medicine and head of the Immunology-Rheumatology Institution at Hadassah Ein Karem Medical Center in Jerusalem and chairman of the Israeli Ministry of Health Committee for Identifying Myocarditis as an Adverse Effect of mRNA Vaccines.

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the middle layer of the wall of the heart muscle, 叫做心肌. It can be triggered by a viral infection and can weaken the heart muscle and the heart's electrical system, 这会让心脏更难正常跳动. 这种情况可以自行缓解,也可以治疗, 但也会对心脏造成持久损害.

Previous 研究 from public health agencies around the world, including the U.S. 疾病控制和预防中心, has shown a potential increased risk of myocarditis following an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. A recent study published by the Ministry of Health in Israel found a low incidence of myocarditis after a first and second dose of Pfizer's vaccine. But because risk was highest among young men and teen boys who had a second dose of the vaccine, 研究人员担心第三次剂量的潜在影响, 加强剂量.

在新的研究中, 研究ers analyzed health data for people who developed myocarditis following a third dose of the Pfizer vaccine, which was given to nearly 4 million Israeli adults between July 31 and Nov. 5, 2021. Within the first 30 days of receiving the booster, there were 35 reported cases of myocarditis. 30天后又报告了56例. 这些, 28例确诊或疑似病例, 其中18例发生在注射助推器后的一周内.

所有28例均为轻度. Patients recovered after spending an average of three to four days in the hospital. 跨越所有年龄段, the risk of developing vaccine-related myocarditis was nine times higher for men than women. Males ages 16-19 faced the highest risk, with young men ages 20-24 having the second-highest risk.

The risk of developing myocarditis among males ages 16-19 after a third dose was about 1 in 15,000. 其他 研究 shows COVID-19 infection poses a higher risk for myocarditis than vaccines.

The risk for developing myocarditis was lower following a booster than following a second dose of the vaccine, 研究人员报告说.

梅沃拉赫对此提出了两个可能的原因. 作为医疗预防措施, people who developed myocarditis after the second COVID-19 vaccine dose did not receive a third dose. 此外,时机也可能是一个因素. The first and second doses are administered approximately three weeks apart, but the time between a second dose and a booster was about 20 to 24 weeks.

Researchers don't know why young men and teenage boys are at higher risk for myocarditis from a COVID-19 vaccine and believe further investigation is needed.

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